From 1G to 5G: this is how mobile networks work and everything that changes after each generation jump

eeeTo carry out this process, different parts of the network come into play that we are going to dissect to see how mobile networks in general work and what has changed after each evolution of mobile generation from 1G to 5G.

How coverage is created from base stations

To design the areas in which to offer coverage, the operators divide the territory into grids called cells or cells, and place in each of them a base station. In these base stations are the booths, with the necessary electronic equipment, batteries that guarantee their operation and cooling systems; the poles and overhead, the transmitting and receiving antennas of radio signals.

The number of base stations required for an area will be defined by the number of users that will connect simultaneously. To radiate its coverage, each cell uses certain radio frequencies, with a limited bandwidth, which delimits the number of channels available for communications, and on which the maximum number of devices that can be connected without interfering will depend.

Radio frequencies are auctioned by the governments of each country and depending on the available bandwidth, higher browsing speeds can also be achieved. Furthermore, these frequencies are available in different bands, the greater the coverage range and penetration indoors the lower the band. It will also be more expensive despite having less bandwidth available.

While the connection between our smartphone and the base station is established wirelessly, the base station will communicate with the network core through fiber connections or radio links, in order to continue establishing communication, which until now, has only only part of the way.

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